Motors Advanced Technology Update
For GM, energy
alternatives that help reduce our dependency on petroleum and
advanced technologies that improve fuel economy and reduce emissions
are the keys to developing sustainable transportation.
Propulsion Technology Strategy embraces a number of advanced
propulsion systems and alternative energy resources, including
gasoline and diesel, bio-fuels, electricity and hydrogen fuel
GM is improving
traditional internal combustion engines and transmissions with
advanced technologies that save fuel, such as variable valve
timing, Active Fuel Management, direct injection and six-speed
GM has pledged
a broad commitment to producing electrically-driven vehicles
that help diversify energy sources, reduce emissions and improve
fuel efficiency. Vehicles include hybrids, plug-in hybrids,
extended range electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell
a “silver bullet” solution for powertrain or energy technology.
It will take
a blending of many different sources of energy to reduce both
our reliance on oil and the automobile’s impact on the
environment while successfully meeting the growing demand.
GM is committed to
continually improving the fuel economy of its vehicles with various
advanced technologies. In light of rising fuel prices, it is
increasingly important for us to apply our energy diversity strategy
across our product line up. This also means offering the
performance and utility that customers have a legitimate need for in
certain vehicles and to do it in a package that delivers strong fuel
For the 2010 model year in the U.S., GM offers more vehicle models
than any other automaker that achieve 30 miles per gallon or more on
the highway, as estimated by the Environmental Protection Agency (15
models for 2010).
focused on applying advanced fuel-saving technologies to the highest
consuming vehicles first, so as to realize the greatest amount of
the past three decades in the U.S., new vehicle fleet fuel economy
has more than doubled for passenger cars and increased 60 percent
for light trucks.
GM intends to meet the tough, new national CAFE standards of 35 mpg
for cars and trucks combined by 2020, a dramatic increase of 40
percent. NHTSA’s proposed rule lays out the first set of standards
toward this target. GM will work with NHTSA throughout its
rulemaking process on the yearly targets and the mechanisms needed
to meet this challenge
GM’s global portfolio and technical resources are a competitive
advantage in developing CAFE solutions.
GAS EMISSIONS – USCAP PARTNERSHIP
GM announced in
May 2007 that it joined the United States Climate Action
issued a set of principles and recommendations toward slowing,
stopping and reversing the growth of greenhouse gas emissions
over the shortest period of time reasonably achievable.
GM was the
first automaker to support this partnership of industry and
environmental organizations working to address climate change
through advanced technology on an economy-wide, market-driven
GASOLINE ENGINES AND TRANSMISSIONS
GM continues to
make improvements to the traditional gasoline engine with
advanced features such as Active Fuel Management, variable valve
timing, Direct Injection, and turbocharging,
recently demonstrated the combustion technology called
homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) for the first
time in two drivable concept vehicles – the 2007 Saturn Aura and
Opel Vectra. When combined with other enabling advanced
technologies, HCCI provides up to a 15 percent fuel savings when
combined with other fuel savings technologies, including cam
phasing, direct injection , and 2-step valvetrain, while meeting
current emissions standards. GM’s demonstration prototypes can
operate on HCCI up to approximately 55 mpg, and an extended
range operation is intended as further refinements to the
control system and engine hardware are made.
are a very important part of GM’s global product portfolio.
For 2010 GM
offers 16 engine variants available in 41 vehicle lines around
the world and sells over one million diesel engines annually.
products offer a range of choices from the 1.3L 4-cylinder
diesel engine sold in the Opel Agila and Corsa, up to the U.S.
6.6L V8 Duramax diesel GM sells in medium and heavy-duty pickup
trucks (Chevy Silverado, GMC Sierra) and full-size vans (Chevy
Express, GMC Savana).
introduced the Duramax diesel in the U.S. in the 2001 model
year, and since then customer enthusiasm for this heavy-duty
diesel has been outstanding. In fact, GM's heavy-duty pickup
truck market share has jumped nearly tenfold in the seven years
that Duramax engines have been offered.
The award-winning and segment leading (in horsepower and torque)
Duramax 6.6-liter V-8 is a four-valve high pressure common rail
direct injection diesel currently equipped with a diesel
particulate filter to meet the stringent 2007 emissions
announced plans to introduce a new premium Duramax 4.5L V-8
turbo Duramax diesel in 2010 for use in light-duty trucks in the
U.S. It will be capable of meeting 2010 emissions standards,
will be compliant in all 50 states, and will improve fuel
efficiency by up to 25 percent. The new diesel will feature a
diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic reduction
(urea injection) to reduce NOx emissions.
GM has a very
diverse hybrid program, with multiple hybrid technologies
designed to meet global driving patterns and needs. The systems
vary in fuel economy savings and cost, providing an opportunity
for more consumers to own a hybrid vehicle and benefit from
increased fuel economy.
In the U.S.,
GM’s strategy is to save as many gallons of fuel as possible by
first applying hybrid technology to high-volume and high fuel
consuming vehicles like mass transit buses, full-size trucks and
portfolio is expanding. By the end of 2008, GM is expected to
offer more hybrid models (8) than any other automaker. The
vehicles are: Saturn Vue Green Line, Saturn Aura Green Line,
Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid, Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid, GMC Yukon
Hybrid, Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid and GMC
Over the next 4
years, GM will introduce 16 new hybrid models, an average of one
every 3 months.
GM will roll out the next-generation GM Hybrid
system across our brands and regions, starting in North America
in 2010, and we expect high volumes, far exceeding 100,000 units
annually. This technology will use a lithium-ion battery and
deliver nearly three times more power than the system it
Increased power will allow the next-generation GM Hybrid System to
used in a wide range of global powertrains, including naturally
aspirated engines, new high-efficiency turbocharged engines,
bio-fuel engines and diesels.
The next-generation GM Hybrid System will build upon the current
technology available on the Saturn Vue Green Line, Saturn Aura Green
Line and Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid.
Estimated overall fuel economy improvements for vehicles using the
system of 15 to 20 percent, depending on engine and vehicle
Help optimize fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by:
engine off at idle
brief electric-only propulsion
more powerful electric motor
enhance engine efficiency
fuel cutoff during deceleration
regenerative braking to recapture more energy
intelligent hybrid battery charging
teamed up with one of the major global players in lithium-ion
technology… Tokyo-based Hitachi Ltd. Its subsidiary, Hitachi
Vehicle Energy Limited, will develop the lithium-ion battery that is
key to bringing this next generation of our GM Hybrid technology to
Current 2010 Model Year Hybrids:
2-mode hybrid system for transit buses: The buses debuted in
2003. To date, GM has announced the delivery of more than 2,700
hybrid powered buses to 70 cities in the U.S. and Canada. Since
their debut, the buses powered by GM’s hybrid technology have saved
more than 3 million gallons of fuel – enough to fill 6 million
2-liter soda bottles – and reduced emissions by 30,000 metric tons.
Saturn Vue Green Line: Debuted in fall 2006, provides a 20% fuel
economy improvement over the non-hybrid Vue by using the affordable
GM Hybrid System and achieves the highest highway fuel economy of
any SUV at 32 mpg.
Saturn Aura Green Line: Debuted for the 2007 model year, uses
the GM Hybrid System, is one of the lowest priced hybrids on the
market at $22,795. It achieves an EPA estimated 24 mpg city/32 mpg
Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid: Debuts for the 2010 model year, uses GM
Hybrid system to achieve 24 city/32 highway mpg, is most affordable
hybrid version of a midsize sedan at $22,790.
Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid and GMC Yukon Hybrid: Debuts for 2010
model year, equipped with GM’s new 2-Mode Hybrid system, will
deliver up to a 50% improvement in city fuel economy (and 30%
overall for both city and highway) over their non-hybrid models.
2010 Saturn Vue
Green Line: The vehicle will be available with either the GM
Hybrid system, or the new 2-Mode Hybrid system. The 2-Mode version
is expected to achieve up to a 45 percent improvement in combined
city and highway fuel economy compared with the non-hybrid Vue.
2010 Cadillac Escalade, 2010 Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra
(crew cab versions): These vehicles will all be available with
the 2-Mode Hybrid system.
Saturn Vue Plug-In Hybrid: GM is the only automaker to
announce it intends to produce a plug-in hybrid. Production timing
is depending upon development of advanced battery technology, but
given the huge potential the Vue Green Line plug-in hybrid offers
for fuel economy improvement – possibly achieving double the fuel
efficiency of any current SUV – this is a top priority program for
System is an all-electric vehicle architecture that
consists of a common drivetrain system
that uses grid electricity stored in a lithium ion battery. An
on-board range extender which can be a gasoline/E85-powered engine,
diesel engine or hydrogen fuel cell system, creates additional
electricity to extend the vehicle’s range when needed.
engineering has been initiated for two variants of the E-Flex
The Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (E-REV),
stored in a lithium-ion battery pack powers the electric motor
to drive the wheels at all speeds. For longer trips, the Volt’s
on-board engine-generator set (range-extender) powered by
gasoline or E85, generates additional electricity to power the
car well beyond the 300 mile range customers have come to
Daily Driving Pattern - The Chevy Volt will use zero
gasoline and produce zero emissions and could nearly
eliminate going to the gas station altogether.
Daily Driving Pattern - Drivers who travel 60 miles a day
(over 21,000 miles per year) would save nearly 570 gallons
of gasoline annually (compared to a similar size vehicle
that averages 30 mpg) averaging about 150 mpg.
fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is built on the same
architecture as the E-REV variant and uses many of the same
components. This version couples our next generation fuel cell
system with a smaller lithium-ion battery to provide up to 300
miles of petroleum- and emissions-free electric driving range.
key to bringing the Chevrolet Volt to market is the development
of the advanced lithium ion battery technology. GM is working
rapidly on this and has made great progress, especially in the
area of durability testing to understand how the battery will
perform over the lifetime of the vehicle.
continues to see hydrogen fuel cells as the best long-term solution
for reducing dependency on oil.
a leader in fuel cell technology and we have demonstrated our fuel
cell vehicles around the world in places like Washington, D.C.,
Tokyo, Berlin, Shanghai and Korea.
fact, in October 2007, GM began to activate “Project Driveway” --
the largest market test of fuel cell vehicles in the world. “Project
Driveway” entails the loan of 100 Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell
vehicles to every day drivers, celebrities, and other dignitaries to
gauge interest, consumer reaction, and vehicle performance in the
U.S. Vehicle deliveries to program participants began in early 2010.
Additional deployments in Europe and Asia are also planned. In fact,
GM previously announced that we will bring 10 of these fuel cell
vehicles to Europe later this year as part of the Clean Energy
Partnership program. We also recently announced a new partnership
with Virgin Atlantic, an environmental leader in the airline
business, to use a Chevy Equinox Fuel Cell Electric vehicle to offer
complimentary ground transportation at Los Angeles airport to
Virgin’s VIP clientele.
goal is to design and validate a fuel cell propulsion system by 2010
that is competitive with current combustion systems on durability
and performance, and that ultimately can be built at scale
Additionally, GM has called on the energy industry and government to
help promote the growth of the hydrogen infrastructure to ensure
that provisions for refueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be in
place when needed.
General Motors has
reduced energy use at its global manufacturing plants by nearly 15
percent over the last five years.
GM is a major user of renewable energy in the manufacturing
sector worldwide, deriving energy for its global operations from
solar, hydro, and landfill gas.
focuses first on eliminating waste, and then recycling waste that
cannot be avoided.
facilities worldwide recycle 89 percent of the waste they generate.
Motors has reduced by 36 percent the amount of waste generated per
vehicle over the last five years.
Motors currently has 10 facilities that have achieved zero landfill
status. These facilities send no waste from production operations to
landfills. They recycle or create energy from all waste materials
from daily operations.
By saving energy
and increasing the use of renewable energy sources, General Motors
reduced CO2 emissions from its manufacturing operations by over 17
percent during the past five years.
General Motors will have two of the largest corporate solar
power installations in the U.S. on the roofs of warehouse facilities
in California by year end.
One of these
solar arrays is on GM’s Service Parts Operations Parts Distribution
Center in Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. It was the first public solar
project in the U.S. of over 1 mega watt when it began operating in
building a second solar array, also 1 mega watt, on the roof of
another parts distribution center in Fontana, Calif., which will be
operational December 2007.
provide excess electricity back to the grid for sale to other users.
Lansing Delta Township Assembly Plant has received a gold
certification from the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in
Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. The building is the
only automotive manufacturing plant in the world – as well as the
largest facility and the most complex manufacturing site -- to ever
receive any level of LEED certification.